To understand endodontic treatment, it helps to know something about the anatomy of the tooth. Inside the tooth, under the white enamel and a hard layer called the dentin, is a soft tissue called the pulp. The pulp contains blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue and it is responsible for nourishment and vitality of the tooth as as well as the reaction to various stimuli as hot, cold and pain. Endodontic treatment is necessary when the pulp, the soft tissue inside the root canal, becomes inflamed or infected. Endodontic treatment removes the inflamed or infected pulp, carefully cleans and shapes the inside of the canal, a channel inside the root, then fills and seals the space. Afterwards, you will return for a second visit, where a crown will be placed on the tooth to protect it and restore it to full function. After restoration, the tooth continues to function like any other tooth.