Coronary artery bypass
surgery, Total arterial coronary bypass operations, Surgical treatment of heart
failure (Heart transplantation and artificial heart and cardiac support
devices), Cardiac valve repair and replacement operations, Carotid artery
surgery (jugular vein surgery) Aneurysm and dissection surgery (open and
endovascular), Venous thromboembolism (DVT) treatment, varicose vein
services for adult-type Cardiovascular Diseases (Coronary bypass, Aneurysm of
Aorta, Heart Valve Repairs and interventions to carotid artery, Varicose Vein,
Peripheral Vessel) and Congenital Heart Diseases.
Coronary By-pass Surgery
Coronary artery implies an arterial structure which supplies blood to
heart. Heart attack is secondary to sudden-onset occlusion of these vessels.
Coronary arteries are bypasses using vascular grafts obtained from chest
cavity, arm or leg and thus, impaired blood flow to heart is corrected and
patients are protected against heart attack or heart failure. Duration of
operation varies depending on number of vessels to be bypassed and the
Conventional Coronary By-pass Surgery
In this technique, heart is exposed by completely opening rib cage. While
blood circulation is maintained with heart - lung machine, heart beat is
stopped. Bypass procedure is carried out in non-beating heart. This technique
is commonly preferred for bypass surgery in patients who have multi-vessel
Off-Pump Coronary By-pass Surgery (OPCAB)
In this technique, vessels are bypassed while heart is still beating. It is
usually preferred for patients, whom heart-lung machine poses risks.
Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass (MIDCAB)
A small incision is made between two ribs (intercostal space) and bypass
surgery is carried out. Although hospital stay is short and recovery is rapid,
it is recommended for patients, who require one or two vessels bypassed, since
it provides a limited field of view.
Heart Valve Operations
There are 4 heart valves (Mitral, Aortic, Tricuspid and Pulmonary Valves).
These valves allows blood flow only at one direction due to its structure. In
this case, impaired heart valves are repaired and treated. However, native
valve is replaced with prosthetic valve, if valve is heavily damaged such that
a repair procedure is not possible.
Open (Surgical) and Closed (Endovascular) Treatment of Aortic Aneurysms:
Aorta is the largest artery that carries oxygenated blood to body. Aneurysm
is defined as a bulging or a balloon formation on wall of artery, resulting
with more than 50% enlargement in diameter of the vessel. In general
population, principal cause of aortic aneurysm includes genetic factors.
Hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and atherosclerosis can also lead to
Open (Surgical) or closed (Endovascular) methods are used for treatment.
Endovascular methods are preferred especially in selected vases, since duration
of operation and hospital stay is short and complications are scarce.
Prevalence of stenotic carotid artery is 8-12% in persons with coronary
artery disease. Therefore, it is of vital importance to evaluate carotid artery
with Color Doppler Ultrasound in patients who should undergo coronary artery